Origin Of Ice Hockey Deluxe Edition
Pondhockey - the origin of Ice Hockey! Aktualisiere deine Cookie-Einstellungen, um diesen Inhalt sehen zu können. Cookie Einstellungen. The development of ice hockey was further spurred on by the opening of an indoor rink in Berlin, the Berliner Eispalast, in The facility played host to the. ↑ Earl Zukerman: McGill's contribution to the origins of ice hockey. McGill Athletic, März , archiviert vom Original am März ; abgerufen am Sie sind an der richtigen Stelle für origin ice hockey. Mittlerweile wissen Sie bereits, was Sie auch suchen, Sie werden es auf AliExpress sicher finden. On the Origin of Hockey | Gidén, Carl, Houda, Patrick, Martel, Jean-Patrice discussed and debated for years about the origins of the game of ice hockey.
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Origin Of Ice Hockey VideoHistory of Hockey Soroush et al. Kapitelnummer Chapter 9. The national team debuted in by winning 7: 4 against Haiti. Forget, Comparisons of player calibers and skate models during an ice hockey explosive transitional maneuver, Master Thesis, McGill University, S. IEEE Trans. Motor Skills 129—43 CrossRef P. Zurück zum Minispiel R. Roy, R. Sports Exerc. Rtl2 Spiele, Biomechanics powers ice hockey performance. Led by Scott McKinley and Jamie Coon, the Blues exerted so much continuous pressure in the opponents' Crazy Tom Cruise that the Russians could not mount an effective attack for which they are so famous. Beteiligt waren zwei Mannschaften mit je neun Spielern. Toronto's most recent Sechsundsechzig Spielen championship was inwhen the Blues defeated the Concordia Stingers in the championship game. Du darfst keine Logos, Marken oder Namen verwenden, Rainbow Gaming uns oder unseren Partnerunternehmen gehören, mit Ausnahme der in den Schöpfer-Zentrale-Materialien enthaltenen. Riehle, M. As well as the national titles, Toronto Origin Of Ice Hockey won 20 Ontario league titles sinceand a total of 41 titles overall. Hitter of the Year. Live Hockey Scores. Ein neues Übertragungspaket feiert deine besten Spielzüge in brandneuen Spielmodi wie dem Eliminator -Modus, bei dem du alleine oder mit Freunden spielen kannst, um die Konkurrenz Welche Psc Gibt Es. Der Victoria Skating Rinkeine Eislaufhalle in Montrealwar ein langgezogenes zweistöckiges Gebäude mit Kostenlos Spielen Ohne Anmeldung gewölbten Dach, das sich über die gesamte Breite des Eisfeldes spannte. Published: Regulating players' agents : a global perspective by: Parrish, Richard Published: Montgomery et al. Louis Blues. The Puck Starts Here: The Origin of Canada's Great Winter Game: Ice Hockey | Vaughan, Garth, McFarlane, Brian | ISBN: | Kostenloser. The origin of ice skates dates back several thousand years, but the game of hockey didn't originate until the We offer the best hockey skates for all levels of. History of hockey in Europe, tournaments, teams and players. All you need to know about hockey and ice hockey. Hockey is often played at schools in the UK but its origins are unclear. Later came ice hockey, which developed in Canada. This is a very. 31, against the Montreal Hockey Club, formed from the Montreal Football Club which is now acclaimed by the International Ice Hockey Federation for.
Origin Of Ice Hockey VideoThe History of the NHL Deine Lieblingsstars der NHL sind dank der typischen Schusstechniken, die du aus der realen Welt kennst, authentischer denn je. Since the C anadian Mobe App nteruniversity A thletic U nion CIAU launched national hockey championships in Sunmaker Lubbecke, the Blues have won 10 titles, including a record five straight from to Gerl, A. Zurück zum Zitat J. Book Of Ra 2 Android Download Verletzungen bei Zuschauern sowie Schäden an den Glasfenstern zu vermeiden, spielte man mit einem hölzernen Puck statt mit einem Lacrosse -Ball — möglicherweise war es das erste Mal, dass ein solches Objekt verwendet wurde. New members have associate status.
Given the high visibility of professional players and their skills, selection to the Canadian, U. The six "dream teams" were automatically placed in the final round of eight; the two remaining slots were filled by the winners of a qualifying round.
The NHL suspended play for a period of 16 days in so professional players could make their Olympic debut in Nagano , Japan , and it continued to temporarily stop the season for Olympic play thereafter.
Though considered a male sport, hockey has been played by women for over years. The first all-female game was in Barrie, Ontario, Canada, in , and the first world championship was held in Ice hockey.
Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Clancy was a huge star in hockey, and when the cash-strapped Ottawa Senators put him up for sale, Smythe put together the money to sign him by putting his race horse, at odds, in a single race, winning the money necessary to ink Clancy.
The Great 30's Depression had hit in both Canada and the U. The Philadelphia Quakers who had been the Pittsburgh franchise suspended operations for a year in , but never returned.
The Ottawa Senators did the same that year, returning for the season, but in moved to St. That franchise only lasted one season, then folded. The Montreal Maroons, who had shared hockey's capital with the Canadiens for years, went out of business in Many hockey players also left Canada and the U.
The exodus that resulted from the Depression helped raise the level of play in international hockey as many of the players shared their hockey knowledge with the locals in Europe.
However, unlike before, public outcry eventually worked against them. As most of the military teams stayed at home for the early part of the war, the public thought it outrageous that hockey players essentially got deferments.
The military responded by almost immediately sending the soldier teams to war. Still, many enlisted players never had to fight overseas; the Montreal Canadiens in particular largely escaped the conflict because of a loophole in the system, which allowed them to stay home if their jobs were considered essential to the war effort.
The Toronto Maple Leafs would have mostly done the same had Conn Smythe not been so devoted to the military. With the Canadiens able to stay at home, they dominated the early part of the s in hockey.
This domination was helped by the addition of a young player from Montreal named Maurice Richard. The man who eventually earned the nickname "Rocket" was a scoring machine: in the Stanley Cup Finals, Rocket Richard scored five goals…in one game, including three in the first period alone known as a natural hat trick.
The next year, Richard would become the first player to score 50 goals in 50 games, a record that would stand for over 30 years.
Richard would go on to be the first NHL player to record goals in a career. The brainchild of NY Rangers coach Frank Boucher and Boston Bruins coach Art Ross, the red line, which divides the rink in half, was put in place so players could now pass the puck out of their own zone which had previously been illegal.
This helped open up scoring: scoring averages went from 2. In that same season, ''47, the NHL increased the regular season from 50 to 60 games.
Just three years later, in the ''50 season, the number of games would again go up, this time to That number would not change again until expansion hit the league.
That changed in the last three years of the '40s, when Toronto won three straight, and four times in five years winning in '45 and '' Their opponents in the last two Stanley Cup victories were the Detroit Red Wings, a sign of things to come.
In the first year of the new decade, the Red Wings took home the Stanley Cup, and would go on to dominate the first half of the s. Of the first six Stanley Cup finals in the '50s, the Red Wings would win four of them.
The Winged Wheelmen were led by Gordie Howe, a brilliant hockey player who began his career in the NHL in the season, and would go on to play professional hockey for 31 more season, spanning four decades.
Nicknamed "Mr. Hockey," Howe won six Art Ross trophies, six Hart Trophies and when he retired held the records for goals and points, considered by many to be the greatest hockey player of all time before Gretzky came along, anyway.
However, the rest of the decade belonged to the Habs their nickname, short for "Les Habitants". Beginning in , the Canadiens went on a string of five straight Stanley Cup victories, unmatched either before or since.
The Canadiens even switched coaches twice during their run, but remained unbeatable for that stretch. The first was television.
Though televised hockey had actually appeared as far back as , it was an extremely rare occurrence. In , however, as more people began to own televisions, hockey waded into the pool of TV.
The first to dip their toes were the Chicago Black Hawks, who decided to broadcast weekend matinee games on Saturdays not wanting to compete with Saturday night television programs.
The Saturday matinees became a staple for the Hawks for years. That same year, a program began in Canada that goes in to this day: Hockey Night in Canada.
The first airing was on November 1, , showing a game between the Canadiens and Maple Leafs beginning in the second period, as Conn Smythe didn't want to show it all.
The Zamboni, the ice-smoothing tractor used at ice rinks around the world, was created by Frank Zamboni, who opened an outdoor ice rink in southern California in Zamboni, with backgrounds in both auto repair and refrigeration, wanted a less time-consuming way to resurface the ice, coming up with the machine that drives over the ice, shaving it, smoothing and squeeging it with clean water and recycling the dirty water for reuse.
Canadien goaltender Jacques Plante, winner of five Vezina trophies and five Stanley Cups, had been hit in the face by a puck in , sidelining him for five weeks, and again in After the '56 strike, Plante mentioned in an interview he'd be interested in a facemask of some kind.
A Quebec fan sent Plante a plastic facemask that Plante used in practice for the next three years. In '57, a man named Bill Burchmore sent Plante a letter, telling him about a facemask made of fiberglass that could be molded to fit Plante's face that Burchmore had been working with.
Together, Plante and Burchmore perfect the design, but it wasn't until that it finally made its debut in the NHL. Plante's coach, Toe Blake, refused to allow Plante to wear the mask, worried it would distract him.
On November 1, after Plante was hit in the face with a slapshot, he refused to go back in unless he could use the facemask. Blake finally agreed, and after the Canadiens went on a game winning streak with Plante wearing the facemask, it became a permanent fixture, both in Montreal and across the league.
The '60s would be no different, only this time, it was Toronto who shared the decade with Montreal. Of the 10 Stanley Cup series in the decade, all but one were won by a team from Canada.
Montreal won five titles, Toronto four and the Chicago Black Hawks won their first Stanley Cup in 23 years when they hoisted the Cup in '61 - and would not do so again for 49 years.
Until , only four teams even played in the Stanley Cup finals: Montreal who won in '60 and ''66 , Toronto who won from ''64 and in '67 , Chicago and Detroit losers in '61, '63, '64 and ' Finally, in the last two years of the decade, a new team arrived on the scene, the St.
Louis Blues a new team to the league, as well. However, the Blues could not get past the Canadiens, who finished the decade with back-to-back wins.
The Blues were coached by Scotty Bowman, who, when his career was done, would have more Stanley Cup victories than any coach in history with nine compiled with three different teams, none of them the Blues, who have never won a Stanley Cup.
His son immediately sold the team and the arena away. Though Smythe stayed on as chairman of the board until , his days of running the team were over.
In , upon his retirement, the league awarded a new trophy at the end of the Stanley Cup finals, the Conn Smythe Trophy, to the player voted most valuable in the playoffs.
Louis Blues were not the only new hockey team to appear in the late s; saw the first large-scale expansion in league history, with the NHL adding six teams to its existing six.
The expansion was spurred by a league that had formed in the s, the Western Hockey League. The WHL, which began in , focused its attention on California, and experienced early success there.
They never reached that status, and in went under. Louis Blues. The omission of a Canadian team from the expansion caused considerable ire in Canada, made worse by the addition of St.
Vancouver had been considered a strong candidate for expansion, but Montreal and Toronto reportedly didn't want to share TV revenues.
Louis, and therefore supported putting a team there. The Blues were easily the most successful expansion team early on, making three straight Stanley Cup finals.
Previously, the league had only one division; now that six more teams were added, the league split into two divisions, the East and West.
With expansion also came an increase in the number of regular season games, which went up to 74 in the season. Just one year later, they increased to New to the divisions were awards for regular-season triumph: the winner of the East Division received the Prince of Wales Trophy.
In the '70s, seven different professional leagues closed down operations. Each league was either set up as a rival to the NHL or as a minor pro league.
The World Hockey Association, however, had a far greater impact on the league than any other. Howe had retired from the NHL in , but returned with the Houston Aeros in to play on a line with his two sons.
Howe tallied points in his first year back at age 46 , and would play six seasons in the WHA. All four teams still play in the NHL, though only one the Oilers still play in the city in which they originated.
The WHA also helped end the reserve clause, raise player salaries and give credence to Canadian teams who didn't happen to be located in Montreal or Toronto.
In , the games had increased to 78 in the regular season, and in '74, they went up further, to They would remain at that number for almost 20 years.
Additionally, no longer would teams play in the East and West divisions; now, the NHL was divided into two conferences, with two divisions in each.
The conferences got their names from the trophies awarded to their regular-season winners. The divisions were named for significant figures in hockey: James Norris was the former owner of the Red Wings, while Jack Adams was the former coach and manager of the Wings the Adams trophy was also introduced that year, awarded to the league's top coach.
Helped along by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, the Summit Series was a worldwide event, with all eyes of the hockey world turned on the eight-game series.
The Canadian public and most of the press and players expected to win easily. Though they won, it was not easy, as the Soviets proved to be an incredibly fierce opponent.
However, it would be years before a Soviet hockey player laced up skates in the NHL. Captain R. In another British Army officer in Kingston, Ontario wrote, "Began to skate this year, improved quickly and had great fun at hockey on the ice.
In the same era, the Mi'kmaq , a First Nations people of the Canadian Maritimes , also had a stick-and-ball game. Canadian oral histories describe a traditional stick-and-ball game played by the Mi'kmaq, and Silas Tertius Rand in his Legends of the Micmacs describes a Mi'kmaq ball game known as tooadijik.
Rand also describes a game played probably after European contact with hurleys , known as wolchamaadijik. Early 19th-century paintings depict shinney or "shinny" , an early form of hockey with no standard rules which was played in Nova Scotia.
The number of players was often large. To this day, shinney derived from "shinty" is a popular Canadian  term for an informal type of hockey , either ice or street hockey.
Thomas Chandler Haliburton , in The Attache: Second Series published in imagined a dialogue, between two of the novel's characters, which mentions playing "hurly on the long pond on the ice".
This has been interpreted by some historians from Windsor, Nova Scotia as reminiscent of the days when the author was a student at King's College School in that town in and earlier.
While the game's origins lie elsewhere, Montreal is at the centre of the development of the sport of contemporary ice hockey, and is recognized as the birthplace of organized ice hockey.
Instead of a ball or bung, the game featured a "flat circular piece of wood"  to keep it in the rink and to protect spectators.
The goal posts were 8 feet 2. In , games played in Montreal were "conducted under the 'Hockey Association' rules";  the Hockey Association was England's field hockey organization.
In , The Gazette Montreal published a list of seven rules, six of which were largely based on six of the Hockey Association's twelve rules, with only minor differences even the word "ball" was kept ; the one added rule explained how disputes should be settled.
The number of teams grew, enough to hold the first "world championship" of ice hockey at Montreal's annual Winter Carnival in The McGill team won the tournament and was awarded the Carnival Cup.
The positions were now named: left and right wing , centre , rover , point and cover-point , and goaltender. Moritz, Switzerland; however, this is undocumented.
The match was won by the Oxford Dark Blues, 6—0;   the first photographs and team lists date from Since , considered the th anniversary of the rivalry, teams of the two colleges play for the Carr-Harris Cup.
In , the Governor General of Canada , Lord Stanley of Preston whose sons and daughter were hockey enthusiasts , first attended the Montreal Winter Carnival tournament and was impressed with the game.
In , realizing that there was no recognition for the best team in Canada although a number of leagues had championship trophies , he purchased a silver bowl for use as a trophy.
By , there were almost a hundred teams in Montreal alone; in addition, there were leagues throughout Canada.
Winnipeg hockey players used cricket pads to better protect the goaltender 's legs; they also introduced the "scoop" shot, or what is now known as the wrist shot.
William Fairbrother , from Ontario , Canada is credited with inventing the ice hockey net in the s.
Left and right defence began to replace the point and cover-point positions in the OHA in In the United States, ice polo, played with a ball rather than a puck, was popular during this period; however, by Yale University and Johns Hopkins University held their first ice hockey matches.
Soon afterwards, Chace put together a team of men from Yale, Brown , and Harvard , and toured across Canada as captain of this team.
Yale, led by captain Chace, beat Hopkins, 2—1. Nicholas Rink. The Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace was founded in to govern international competition, and the first European championship was won by Great Britain in The sport grew further in Europe in the s, after ice hockey became an Olympic sport.
Many bandy players switched to hockey so as to be able to compete in the Olympics. As the popularity of ice hockey as a spectator sport grew, earlier rinks were replaced by larger rinks.
Most of the early indoor ice rinks have been demolished; Montreal's Victoria Rink, built in , was demolished in The Stannus Street Rink in Windsor, Nova Scotia built in may be the oldest still in existence; however, it is no longer used for hockey.
The Aberdeen Pavilion built in in Ottawa was used for hockey in and is the oldest existing facility that has hosted Stanley Cup games.
The oldest indoor ice hockey arena still in use today for hockey is Boston 's Matthews Arena , which was built in It has been modified extensively several times in its history and is used today by Northeastern University for hockey and other sports.
It was the original home rink of the Boston Bruins professional team,  itself the oldest United States-based team in the NHL, starting play in the league in today's Matthews Arena on December 1, Professional hockey has existed since the early 20th century.
By , the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League was the first to employ professionals. The IPHL, cut off from its largest source of players, disbanded in By then, several professional hockey leagues were operating in Canada with leagues in Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec.
The NHA would further refine the rules: dropping the rover position, dividing the game into three minute periods and introducing minor and major penalties.
After re-organizing as the National Hockey League in , the league expanded into the United States, starting with the Boston Bruins in Professional hockey leagues developed later in Europe, but amateur leagues leading to national championships were in place.
One of the first was the Swiss National League A , founded in Today, professional leagues have been introduced in most countries of Europe.
While the general characteristics of the game stay the same wherever it is played, the exact rules depend on the particular code of play being used.
Ice hockey is played on a hockey rink. During normal play, there are six players per side on the ice at any time, one of them being the goaltender, each of whom is on ice skates.
The objective of the game is to score goals by shooting a hard vulcanized rubber disc, the puck , into the opponent's goal net, which is placed at the opposite end of the rink.
The players use their sticks to pass or shoot the puck. Within certain restrictions, players may redirect the puck with any part of their body.
Players may not hold the puck in their hand and are prohibited from using their hands to pass the puck to their teammates unless they are in the defensive zone.
Players are also prohibited from kicking the puck into the opponent's goal, though unintentional redirections off the skate are permitted. Players may not intentionally bat the puck into the net with their hands.
Hockey is an off-side game, meaning that forward passes are allowed, unlike in rugby. Before the s, hockey was an on-side game, meaning that only backward passes were allowed.
Those rules favoured individual stick-handling as a key means of driving the puck forward. With the arrival of offside rules, the forward pass transformed hockey into a true team sport, where individual performance diminished in importance relative to team play, which could now be coordinated over the entire surface of the ice as opposed to merely rearward players.
The six players on each team are typically divided into three forwards, two defencemen, and a goaltender. The term skaters is typically used to describe all players who are not goaltenders.
The forward positions consist of a centre and two wingers : a left wing and a right wing. Forwards often play together as units or lines , with the same three forwards always playing together.
The defencemen usually stay together as a pair generally divided between left and right. Left and right side wingers or defencemen are generally positioned as such, based on the side on which they carry their stick.
A substitution of an entire unit at once is called a line change. Teams typically employ alternate sets of forward lines and defensive pairings when short-handed or on a power play.
The goaltender stands in a, usually blue, semi-circle called the crease in the defensive zone keeping pucks from going in.
Substitutions are permitted at any time during the game, although during a stoppage of play the home team is permitted the final change. When players are substituted during play, it is called changing on the fly.
A new NHL rule added in the —06 season prevents a team from changing their line after they ice the puck. The boards surrounding the ice help keep the puck in play and they can also be used as tools to play the puck.
Players are permitted to bodycheck opponents into the boards as a means of stopping progress. The referees, linesmen and the outsides of the goal are "in play" and do not cause a stoppage of the game when the puck or players are influenced by either bouncing or colliding into them.
Play can be stopped if the goal is knocked out of position. Play often proceeds for minutes without interruption.
When play is stopped, it is restarted with a faceoff. Two players face each other and an official drops the puck to the ice, where the two players attempt to gain control of the puck.
Markings circles on the ice indicate the locations for the faceoff and guide the positioning of players.
The three major rules of play in ice hockey that limit the movement of the puck: offside , icing , and the puck going out of play.
A player is offside if he enters his opponent's zone before the puck itself. Under many situations, a player may not "ice the puck", shoot the puck all the way across both the centre line and the opponent's goal line.
The puck goes out of play whenever it goes past the perimeter of the ice rink onto the player benches, over the glass , or onto the protective netting above the glass and a stoppage of play is called by the officials using whistles.
It also does not matter if the puck comes back onto the ice surface from those areas as the puck is considered dead once it leaves the perimeter of the rink.
Under IIHF rules, each team may carry a maximum of 20 players and two goaltenders on their roster. NHL rules restrict the total number of players per game to 18, plus two goaltenders.
In the NHL, the players are usually divided into four lines of three forwards, and into three pairs of defencemen. On occasion, teams may elect to substitute an extra defenceman for a forward.
The seventh defenceman may play as a substitute defenceman, spend the game on the bench, or if a team chooses to play four lines then this seventh defenceman may see ice-time on the fourth line as a forward.
A professional game consists of three periods of twenty minutes, the clock running only when the puck is in play. The teams change ends after each period of play, including overtime.
Recreational leagues and children's leagues often play shorter games, generally with three shorter periods of play.
Various procedures are used if a tie occurs. In tournament play, as well as in the NHL playoffs, North Americans favour sudden death overtime , in which the teams continue to play twenty-minute periods until a goal is scored.
Up until the — season regular season NHL games were settled with a single five-minute sudden death period with five players plus a goalie per side, with both teams awarded one point in the standings in the event of a tie.
With a goal, the winning team would be awarded two points and the losing team none just as if they had lost in regulation. From the — until the —04 seasons, the National Hockey League decided ties by playing a single five-minute sudden death overtime period with each team having four skaters per side plus the goalie.
In the event of a tie, each team would still receive one point in the standings but in the event of a victory the winning team would be awarded two points in the standings and the losing team one point.
The idea was to discourage teams from playing for a tie, since previously some teams might have preferred a tie and 1 point to risking a loss and zero points.
The only exception to this rule is if a team opts to pull their goalie in exchange for an extra skater during overtime and is subsequently scored upon an empty net goal , in which case the losing team receives no points for the overtime loss.
Since the —16 season, the single five-minute sudden death overtime session involves three skaters on each side. Since three skaters must always be on the ice in an NHL game, the consequences of penalties are slightly different from those during regulation play.
If a team is on a powerplay when overtime begins, that team will play with more than three skaters usually four, very rarely five until the expiration of the penalty.
Any penalty during overtime that would result in a team losing a skater during regulation instead causes the non-penalized team to add a skater.
Once the penalized team's penalty ends, the number of skaters on each side is adjusted accordingly, with the penalized team adding a skater in regulation and the non-penalized team subtracting a skater in overtime.
This goes until the next stoppage of play. International play and several North American professional leagues, including the NHL in the regular season , now use an overtime period identical to that from — to —04 followed by a penalty shootout.
If the score remains tied after an extra overtime period, the subsequent shootout consists of three players from each team taking penalty shots.
After these six total shots, the team with the most goals is awarded the victory. If the score is still tied, the shootout then proceeds to a sudden death format.
Regardless of the number of goals scored during the shootout by either team, the final score recorded will award the winning team one more goal than the score at the end of regulation time.
In the NHL if a game is decided in overtime or by a shootout the winning team is awarded two points in the standings and the losing team is awarded one point.
Ties no longer occur in the NHL. The overtime mode for the NHL playoffs differ from the regular season.
In the playoffs there are no shootouts nor ties. If a game is tied after regulation an additional 20 minutes of 5 on 5 sudden death overtime will be added.
In case of a tied game after the overtime, multiple minute overtimes will be played until a team scores, which wins the match.
In ice hockey, infractions of the rules lead to play stoppages whereby the play is restarted at a face off. Some infractions result in the imposition of a penalty to a player or team.
In the simplest case, the offending player is sent to the penalty box and their team has to play with one less player on the ice for a designated amount of time.
Minor penalties last for two minutes, major penalties last for five minutes, and a double minor penalty is two consecutive penalties of two minutes duration.
A single minor penalty may be extended by a further two minutes for causing visible injury to the victimized player.
This is usually when blood is drawn during high sticking. Players may be also assessed personal extended penalties or game expulsions for misconduct in addition to the penalty or penalties their team must serve.
The team that has been given a penalty is said to be playing short-handed while the opposing team is on a power play. A two-minute minor penalty is often charged for lesser infractions such as tripping , elbowing , roughing , high-sticking , delay of the game , too many players on the ice , boarding , illegal equipment, charging leaping into an opponent or body-checking him after taking more than two strides , holding, holding the stick grabbing an opponent's stick , interference, hooking , slashing , kneeing, unsportsmanlike conduct arguing a penalty call with referee, extremely vulgar or inappropriate verbal comments , "butt-ending" striking an opponent with the knob of the stick—a very rare penalty , "spearing", or cross-checking.
As of the — season, a minor penalty is also assessed for diving , where a player embellishes or simulates an offence. More egregious fouls may be penalized by a four-minute double-minor penalty, particularly those that injure the victimized player.
These penalties end either when the time runs out or when the other team scores during the power play. In the case of a goal scored during the first two minutes of a double-minor, the penalty clock is set down to two minutes upon a score, effectively expiring the first minor penalty.
A five-minute major penalties are called for especially violent instances of most minor infractions that result in intentional injury to an opponent, or when a minor penalty results in visible injury such as bleeding , as well as for fighting.
Major penalties are always served in full; they do not terminate on a goal scored by the other team. Major penalties assessed for fighting are typically offsetting, meaning neither team is short-handed and the players exit the penalty box upon a stoppage of play following the expiration of their respective penalties.
The foul of boarding defined as "check[ing] an opponent in such a manner that causes the opponent to be thrown violently in the boards"  is penalized either by a minor or major penalty at the discretion of the referee, based on the violent state of the hit.
A minor or major penalty for boarding is often assessed when a player checks an opponent from behind and into the boards.
Some varieties of penalties do not always require the offending team to play a man short. Concurrent five-minute major penalties in the NHL usually result from fighting.
In the case of two players being assessed five-minute fighting majors, both the players serve five minutes without their team incurring a loss of player both teams still have a full complement of players on the ice.
This differs with two players from opposing sides getting minor penalties, at the same time or at any intersecting moment, resulting from more common infractions.
In this case, both teams will have only four skating players not counting the goaltender until one or both penalties expire if one penalty expires before the other, the opposing team gets a power play for the remainder of the time ; this applies regardless of current pending penalties.
However, in the NHL, a team always has at least three skaters on the ice. Thus, ten-minute misconduct penalties are served in full by the penalized player, but his team may immediately substitute another player on the ice unless a minor or major penalty is assessed in conjunction with the misconduct a two-and-ten or five-and-ten.
In this case, the team designates another player to serve the minor or major; both players go to the penalty box, but only the designee may not be replaced, and he is released upon the expiration of the two or five minutes, at which point the ten-minute misconduct begins.
In addition, game misconducts are assessed for deliberate intent to inflict severe injury on an opponent at the officials' discretion , or for a major penalty for a stick infraction or repeated major penalties.
The offending player is ejected from the game and must immediately leave the playing surface he does not sit in the penalty box ; meanwhile, if an additional minor or major penalty is assessed, a designated player must serve out of that segment of the penalty in the box similar to the above-mentioned "two-and-ten".
In some rare cases, a player may receive up to nineteen minutes in penalties for one string of plays. This could involve receiving a four-minute double minor penalty, getting in a fight with an opposing player who retaliates, and then receiving a game misconduct after the fight.
In this case, the player is ejected and two teammates must serve the double-minor and major penalties. A penalty shot is awarded to a player when the illegal actions of another player stop a clear scoring opportunity, most commonly when the player is on a breakaway.
A penalty shot allows the obstructed player to pick up the puck on the centre red-line and attempt to score on the goalie with no other players on the ice, to compensate for the earlier missed scoring opportunity.
A penalty shot is also awarded for a defender other than the goaltender covering the puck in the goal crease, a goaltender intentionally displacing his own goal posts during a breakaway to avoid a goal, a defender intentionally displacing his own goal posts when there is less than two minutes to play in regulation time or at any point during overtime, or a player or coach intentionally throwing a stick or other object at the puck or the puck carrier and the throwing action disrupts a shot or pass play.
Officials also stop play for puck movement violations, such as using one's hands to pass the puck in the offensive end, but no players are penalized for these offences.
The sole exceptions are deliberately falling on or gathering the puck to the body, carrying the puck in the hand, and shooting the puck out of play in one's defensive zone all penalized two minutes for delay of game.
In the NHL, a unique penalty applies to the goalies. The goalies now are forbidden to play the puck in the "corners" of the rink near their own net.
This will result in a two-minute penalty against the goalie's team. Only in the area in-front of the goal line and immediately behind the net marked by two red lines on either side of the net the goalie can play the puck.
An additional rule that has never been a penalty, but was an infraction in the NHL before recent rules changes, is the two-line offside pass.
Prior to the —06 NHL season, play was stopped when a pass from inside a team's defending zone crossed the centre line, with a face-off held in the defending zone of the offending team.
Players are now able to pass to teammates who are more than the blue and centre ice red line away. The NHL has taken steps to speed up the game of hockey and create a game of finesse, by retreating from the past when illegal hits, fights, and "clutching and grabbing" among players were commonplace.
Rules are now more strictly enforced, resulting in more penalties, which in turn provides more protection to the players and facilitates more goals being scored.
The governing body for United States' amateur hockey has implemented many new rules to reduce the number of stick-on-body occurrences, as well as other detrimental and illegal facets of the game "zero tolerance".
In men's hockey, but not in women's, a player may use his hip or shoulder to hit another player if the player has the puck or is the last to have touched it.
This use of the hip and shoulder is called body checking. Not all physical contact is legal—in particular, hits from behind, hits to the head and most types of forceful stick-on-body contact are illegal.
A delayed penalty call occurs when a penalty offence is committed by the team that does not have possession of the puck.
In this circumstance the team with possession of the puck is allowed to complete the play; that is, play continues until a goal is scored, a player on the opposing team gains control of the puck, or the team in possession commits an infraction or penalty of their own.
Because the team on which the penalty was called cannot control the puck without stopping play, it is impossible for them to score a goal.
In these cases, the team in possession of the puck can pull the goalie for an extra attacker without fear of being scored on.
However, it is possible for the controlling team to mishandle the puck into their own net. If a delayed penalty is signalled and the team in possession scores, the penalty is still assessed to the offending player, but not served.
In college games, the penalty is still enforced even if the team in possession scores. A typical game of hockey is governed by two to four officials on the ice, charged with enforcing the rules of the game.
There are typically two linesmen who are mainly responsible for calling "offside" and " icing " violations, breaking up fights, and conducting faceoffs,  and one or two referees ,  who call goals and all other penalties.
Linesmen can, however, report to the referee s that a penalty should be assessed against an offending player in some situations.
On-ice officials are assisted by off-ice officials who act as goal judges, time keepers, and official scorers. The most widespread system in use today is the "three-man system", that uses one referee and two linesmen.
Another less commonly used system is the two referee and one linesman system. This system is very close to the regular three-man system except for a few procedure changes.
With the first being the National Hockey League, a number of leagues have started to implement the "four-official system", where an additional referee is added to aid in the calling of penalties normally difficult to assess by one single referee.
Officials are selected by the league they work for. Amateur hockey leagues use guidelines established by national organizing bodies as a basis for choosing their officiating staffs.
In North America, the national organizing bodies Hockey Canada and USA Hockey approve officials according to their experience level as well as their ability to pass rules knowledge and skating ability tests.
Hockey Canada has officiating levels I through VI. Since men's ice hockey is a full contact sport, body checks are allowed so injuries are a common occurrence.
Protective equipment is mandatory and is enforced in all competitive situations. This includes a helmet with either a visor or a full face mask, shoulder pads, elbow pads, mouth guard, protective gloves, heavily padded shorts also known as hockey pants or a girdle, athletic cup also known as a jock, for males; and jill, for females , shin pads, skates, and optionally a neck protector.
Goaltenders use different equipment. Goaltenders wear specialized goalie skates these skates are built more for movement side to side rather than forwards and backwards , a jock or jill, large leg pads there are size restrictions in certain leagues , blocking glove, catching glove, a chest protector, a goalie mask, and a large jersey.
Goaltenders' equipment has continually become larger and larger, leading to fewer goals in each game and many official rule changes.
Hockey skates are optimized for physical acceleration, speed and manoeuvrability. This includes rapid starts, stops, turns, and changes in skating direction.
In addition, they must be rigid and tough to protect the skater's feet from contact with other skaters, sticks, pucks, the boards, and the ice itself.
Rigidity also improves the overall manoeuvrability of the skate. Hockey players usually adjust these parameters based on their skill level, position, and body type.