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Installed Capacity: MW. Power Africa Pipeline: 70 MW. People without Power: 13 million. Power Africa New Connections: 2, Biggest Issues and Bottlenecks.

Power Africa Interventions. Power Africa has engaged on two solar projects in Chad through official private sector partners, as well as the African Development Bank.

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Search Fusion Enter the terms you wish to search for. Chad has a poor human rights record , with frequent abuses such as arbitrary imprisonment, extrajudicial killings, and limits on civil liberties by both security forces and armed militias.

In the 7th millennium BCE, ecological conditions in the northern half of Chadian territory favored human settlement, and its population increased considerably.

For more than 2, years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people. The region became a crossroads of civilizations.

The earliest of these were the legendary Sao , known from artifacts and oral histories. The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire , [11] [12] the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD.

Two other states in the region, Sultanate of Bagirmi and Wadai Empire emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries. The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region.

French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in By , France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa.

The French primarily viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton; France introduced large-scale cotton production in The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service.

Only the Sara of the south was governed effectively; French presence in the Islamic north and east was nominal.

The educational system was affected by this neglect. After World War II , France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the National Assembly and a Chadian assembly.

Two years later, Tombalbaye banned opposition parties and established a one-party system. Tombalbaye's autocratic rule and insensitive mismanagement exacerbated inter-ethnic tensions.

Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed in , [20] but the insurgency continued. Armed factions, many from the north's rebellion, contended for power.

The disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country. Libya moved to fill the power vacuum and became involved in Chad's civil war.

He won a second term five years later. Instead, internal dissent worsened, and a new civil war broke out.

Ethnic violence in eastern Chad has increased; the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has warned that a genocide like that in Darfur may yet occur in Chad.

Chad is currently one of the leading partners in a West African coalition in the fight against Boko Haram. Chad has also been included on Presidential Proclamation , the expanded version of United States president Donald Trump's Executive Order , which restricts entry by nationals from 8 countries, including Chad, into the US.

This move has angered the Chadian government. It is slightly smaller than Peru and slightly larger than South Africa.

Chad is bounded to the north by Libya , to the east by Sudan , to the west by Niger , Nigeria and Cameroon , and to the south by the Central African Republic.

The region's tall grasses and extensive marshes make it favourable for birds, reptiles, and large mammals. Chad's major rivers—the Chari , Logone and their tributaries—flow through the southern savannas from the southeast into Lake Chad.

Each year a tropical weather system known as the intertropical front crosses Chad from south to north, bringing a wet season that lasts from May to October in the south, and from June to September in the Sahel.

The Sahara lies in the country's northern third. Yearly precipitations throughout this belt are under 50 millimetres 2. In the Sahel, a steppe of thorny bushes mostly acacias gradually gives way to the south to East Sudanian savanna in Chad's Sudanese zone.

Chad's animal and plant life correspond to the three climatic zones. In the Saharan region, the only flora is the date-palm groves of the oasis. Palms and acacia trees grow in the Sahelian region.

The southern, or Sudanic, zone consists of broad grasslands or prairies suitable for grazing. As of , there were at least species of mammals, species of birds species of residents and migrants , and over 1, species of plants throughout the country.

Elephants , lions , buffalo , hippopotamuses , rhinoceroses , giraffes , antelopes , leopards , cheetahs , hyenas , and many species of snakes are found here, although most large carnivore populations have been drastically reduced since the early 20th century.

The small group of surviving West African crocodiles in the Ennedi Plateau represents one of the last colonies known in the Sahara today.

Extensive deforestation has resulted in loss of trees such as acacias, baobab, dates and palm trees. This has also caused loss of natural habitat for wild animals; one of the main reasons for this is also hunting and livestock farming by increasing human settlements.

Populations of animals like lions, leopards and rhino have fallen significantly. Efforts have been made by the Food and Agriculture Organization to improve relations between farmers, agro-pastoralists and pastoralists in the Zakouma National Park ZNP , Siniaka-Minia, and Aouk reserve in southeastern Chad to promote sustainable development.

Poaching is a serious problem in the country, particularly of elephants for the profitable ivory industry and a threat to lives of rangers even in the national parks such as Zakouma.

Elephants are often massacred in herds in and around the parks by organized poaching. Chad's national statistical agency projected the country's population between 13,, and 13,,, with 13,, as its medium projection; based on the medium projection, 3,, people lived in urban areas and 10,, people lived in rural areas.

The birth rate is estimated at The life expectancy is 52 years. Chad's population is unevenly distributed. Density is 0. In the capital, it is even higher.

Urban life is concentrated in the capital, whose population is mostly engaged in commerce. With the , Chadians displaced by the civil war in the east, this has generated increased tensions among the region's communities.

This is sanctioned by law, which automatically permits polygamy unless spouses specify that this is unacceptable upon marriage.

Women lack equal opportunities in education and training, making it difficult for them to compete for the relatively few formal-sector jobs.

Although property and inheritance laws based on the French code do not discriminate against women, local leaders adjudicate most inheritance cases in favour of men, according to traditional practice.

Chad has more than distinct ethnic groups, [66] which create diverse social structures. The colonial administration and independent governments have attempted to impose a national society, but for most Chadians the local or regional society remains the most important influence outside the immediate family.

Nevertheless, Chad's people may be classified according to the geographical region in which they live. In the south live sedentary people such as the Sara , the nation's main ethnic group, whose essential social unit is the lineage.

In the Sahel sedentary peoples live side by side with nomadic ones, such as the Arabs, the country's second major ethnic group.

The north is inhabited by nomads, mostly Toubous. Chad's official languages are Arabic and French , but over languages and dialects are spoken.

Due to the important role played by itinerant Arab traders and settled merchants in local communities, Chadian Arabic has become a lingua franca.

Chad is a religiously diverse country. Estimates from Pew Research Center in found that Animism includes a variety of ancestor and place-oriented religions whose expression is highly specific.

The majority of Muslims in the country are adherents of a moderate branch of mystical Islam Sufism. Roman Catholics represent the largest Christian denomination in the country.

Most Protestants, including the Nigeria-based "Winners' Chapel", are affiliated with various evangelical Christian groups.

Both faiths were introduced after independence in and therefore are considered to be "new" religions in the country. Chad is home to foreign missionaries representing both Christian and Islamic groups.

Saudi Arabian funding generally supports social and educational projects and extensive mosque construction. Chad's constitution provides for a strong executive branch headed by a president who dominates the political system.

The president has the power to appoint the prime minister and the cabinet, and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad's para-statal firms.

The president is directly elected by popular vote for a five-year term; in constitutional term limits were removed, [73] allowing a president to remain in power beyond the previous two-term limit.

Chad's legal system is based on French civil law and Chadian customary law where the latter does not interfere with public order or constitutional guarantees of equality.

Despite the constitution's guarantee of judicial independence, the president names most key judicial officials. The legal system's highest jurisdictions, the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Council , have become fully operational since The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice, named by the president, and 15 councillors, appointed for life by the president and the National Assembly.

The Constitutional Court is headed by nine judges elected to nine-year terms. It has the power to review legislation, treaties and international agreements prior to their adoption.

The National Assembly makes legislation. The body consists of members elected for four-year terms who meet three times per year. The Assembly holds regular sessions twice a year, starting in March and October, and can hold special sessions when called by the prime minister.

Deputies elect a National Assembly president every two years. The president must sign or reject newly passed laws within 15 days. The National Assembly must approve the prime minister's plan of government and may force the prime minister to resign through a majority vote of no confidence.

However, if the National Assembly rejects the executive branch's programme twice in one year, the president may disband the Assembly and call for new legislative elections.

In practice, the president exercises considerable influence over the National Assembly through his party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement MPS , which holds a large majority.

In Chad had the seventh highest score on the failed state index. Since then the trend has been upwards each year. Chad had the fourth highest score behind Sudan on the Failed State Index of and as of [update] , is ranked fifth.

In southern Chad, bitter conflicts over land are becoming more and more common. They frequently turn violent.

Long-standing community culture is being eroded — and so are the livelihoods of many farmers. Homosexual acts are illegal and can be punished by 15 to 20 years in prison.

Chad's greatest foreign influence is France, which maintains 1, soldiers in the country. There have been numerous rebel groups in Chad throughout the last few decades.

In addition, there have been various conflicts with Khartoum 's Janjaweed rebels in eastern Chad, who killed civilians by use of helicopter gunships.

In , the UFR reportedly had a force estimating 6, men and vehicles. Since Chad has been divided into 23 regions. Each region is headed by a presidentially appointed governor.

Prefects administer the 61 departments within the regions. This estimate however dropped after the end of the Civil war in Chad — to 2.

Chad's currency is the CFA franc. In the s, the Mining industry of Chad produced sodium carbonate , or natron.

There have also been reports of gold -bearing quartz in the Biltine Prefecture. However, years of civil war have scared away foreign investors; those who left Chad between and have only recently begun to regain confidence in the country's future.

In major direct foreign investment in the oil sector began, boosting the country's economic prospects. An uneven inclusion into the global political economy as a site for colonial resource extraction primarily cotton and crude oil , a global economic system that does not promote nor encourage the development of Chadian industrialization, [] and the failure to support local agricultural production has meant that the majority of Chadians live in daily uncertainty and hunger.

In the Sahel only the hardier varieties of millet grow, and these with much lower yields than in the south. On the other hand, the Sahel is ideal pastureland for large herds of commercial cattle and for goats, sheep, donkeys and horses.

The Sahara's scattered oases support only some dates and legumes. The parastatal is now expected to be privatised.

According to the United Nations , Chad has been affected by a humanitarian crisis since at least As of [update] , the country of Chad hosts over , refugees from the Sudan 's Darfur region, over 55, from the Central African Republic , as well as over , internally displaced persons.

With no railways of its own, Chad depends heavily on Cameroon's rail system for the transport of Chadian exports and imports to and from the seaport of Douala.

As of [update] Chad had an estimated 59 airports, only 9 of which had paved runways. Oil production began in with the completion of a pipeline financed in part by the World Bank that links the southern oilfields to terminals on the Atlantic coast of Cameroon.

In January the World Bank suspended its loan programme when the Chadian government passed laws reducing this amount. The telecommunication system is basic and expensive, with fixed telephone services provided by the state telephone company SotelTchad.

In , there were only 14 fixed telephone lines per 10, inhabitants in the country, one of the lowest telephone densities in the world.

Gateway Communications , a pan-African wholesale connectivity and telecommunications provider also has a presence in Chad. Chad is ranked last in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index NRI — an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies.

Chad ranked number out of overall in the NRI ranking, down from in Chad's television audience is limited to N'Djamena.

Radio has a far greater reach, with 13 private radio stations. Educators face considerable challenges due to the nation's dispersed population and a certain degree of reluctance on the part of parents to send their children to school.

Although attendance is compulsory, only 68 percent of boys attend primary school, and more than half of the population is illiterate.

Higher education is provided at the University of N'Djamena. In , the U. A more recent DOL report listed cattle herding as a major agricultural activity that employed underage children.

Because of its great variety of peoples and languages, Chad possesses a rich cultural heritage. The music of Chad includes a number of instruments such as the kinde , a type of bow harp; the kakaki , a long tin horn; and the hu hu , a stringed instrument that uses calabashes as loudspeakers.

Other instruments and their combinations are more linked to specific ethnic groups: the Sara prefer whistles, balafones , harps and kodjo drums; and the Kanembu combine the sounds of drums with those of flute-like instruments.

Millet is the staple food of Chadian cuisine. It is used to make balls of paste that are dipped in sauces. In the north this dish is known as alysh ; in the south, as biya.

Fish is popular, which is generally prepared and sold either as salanga sun-dried and lightly smoked Alestes and Hydrocynus or as banda smoked large fish.

Alcoholic beverages, though absent in the north, are popular in the south, where people drink millet beer , known as billi-billi when brewed from red millet, and as coshate when from white millet.

The music group Chari Jazz formed in and initiated Chad's modern music scene. Later, more renowned groups such as African Melody and International Challal attempted to mix modernity and tradition.

Popular groups such as Tibesti have clung faster to their heritage by drawing on sai , a traditional style of music from southern Chad.

The people of Chad have customarily disdained modern music. However, in greater interest has developed and fostered the distribution of CDs and audio cassettes featuring Chadian artists.

Piracy and a lack of legal protections for artists' rights remain problems to further development of the Chadian music industry.

As in other Sahelian countries, literature in Chad has seen an economic, political and spiritual drought that has affected its best known writers.

Chadian authors have been forced to write from exile or expatriate status and have generated literature dominated by themes of political oppression and historical discourse.

Since , 20 Chadian authors have written some 60 works of fiction. The development of a Chadian film industry, which began with the short films of Edouard Sailly in the s, was hampered by the devastations of civil wars and from the lack of cinemas , of which there is currently only one in the whole country the Normandie in N'Djamena.

Football is Chad's most popular sport. Basketball and freestyle wrestling are widely practiced, the latter in a form in which the wrestlers put on traditional animal hides and cover themselves with dust.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Landlocked country in northern central Africa. This article is about the country. For the given name, see Chad name.

For other uses, see Chad disambiguation. Main article: History of Chad. Main article: Geography of Chad. Main article: Climate of Chad.

Main article: Wildlife of Chad. Main article: Demographics of Chad. Main article: Languages of Chad. Main article: Religion in Chad.

Religion in Chad Pew Research [38] [71] religion percent Islam. Main article: Politics of Chad. Main article: Foreign relations of Chad.

Region Pop. Main article: Military of Chad. Main article: Transport in Chad. See also: List of airports in Chad.

See also: Energy in Chad. See also: Telecommunications in Chad. Main article: Media of Chad. Africa portal. Retrieved 3 May Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 18 December July Archived from the original PDF on 22 December March Archived from the original PDF on 24 September International Monetary Fund.

World Bank. Retrieved 16 April United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 29 August Accessed on 3 September Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

University of Pennsylvania Press.

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